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Loss of life following collision.

Loss or damage by collision to another vessel, including one-
quarter of the value of the cargo on board—it being remembered
that three-quarters of the cargo is covered under the marine

Loss or damage to cargo arising from improper navigation.

Cargo's proportion of general average arising from improper

Damage to piers, jetties, and wharves.

Cost of raising wreck.

Cost of Board of Trade inquiries.

Quarantine expenses.

Legal costs of defending claims.


Wrong, short, or mixed delivery of cargo.
Steamer's liability following collision, which is not covered by

Cost of fines which may be caused by the barratry and wrongful

acts of the master and/or the crew!
Cost of resisting cargo claims.

The cost of defending and resisting claims which is
mentioned at the close of each section does not refer to the
ordinary commercial claims which an owner has to contend
with, but only to claims which have significance in, the
interest of all owners.

Such cases, when fought, may usually be described as
"test" cases in which owners are desirous of obtaining a
legal ruling upon a certain matter by which they may be
guided in the future. These test cases may cost some
thousands of pounds before they are settled, and may
appear an extravagant expense of money, but when it is
realized that stated rulings are laid down on which owners
may act in future similar circumstances thus obviating
many claims of a like nature, this expense appears obviously